Maleic Acid

CAS Number110-16-7
Molecular FormulaC4H4O4
Molecular Weight116.072
InChI KeyVZCYOOQTPOCHFL-UPHRSURJSA-N
LogP-0.480
Synonyms
  • Maleic acid
  • (2Z)-But-2-enedioic acid
  • 2-Butenedioic acid, (2Z)-
  • 110-16-7
  • (2Z)-2-Butenedioic acid
  • cis-Butenedioic acid
  • 4-02-00-02199
  • 2-Butenedioic acid (2Z)-
  • (2Z)-Butene-2-dioic acid
  • (Z)-2-Butenedioic acid
  • (Z)-Butenedioic acid
  • 1,2-Ethylene dicarboxylic acid
  • 2-Butenedioic acid (Z)-
  • 2-Butenedioic acid(Z)
  • 2-Butenedioic acid, (Z)-
  • Acide maleique
  • acido maleico
  • cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid
  • cis-2-Butenedioic acid
  • MALEINIC ACID
  • Maleinsaeure
  • Malenic acid
  • Malezid CM
  • Scotchbond Multipurpose Etchant
  • Toxilic acid
  • BRN 0605762
  • Butenedioic acid, (Z)-
  • EINECS 203-742-5
  • NSC 25940
  • UNII-91XW058U2C
  • (2Z)-2-Butenedioate
  • (2Z)-Butene-2-dioate
  • (2Z)-but-2-enedioate
  • (2Z)-but-2-enedioic acid
  • (Z)-2-Butenedioate
  • (Z)-butenedioic acid
  • (z)-butenedioate
  • 2-Butenedioate
  • 2-Butenedioic acid
  • Cis-butenedioate
  • H2male
  • Kyselina maleinova
  • MAE
  • Maleic acid [NA2215]
  • Scotchbond multipurpose etchant
  • but-2-enedioic acid
  • cis-2-Butenedioate
  • cis-But-2-enedioate
  • cis-but-2-enedioic acid

Applications:

HPLC Method for Analysis of EDTA and Maleic Acid on Newcrom B Column

2022-07-26

Separation type: Liquid Chromatography Mixed-mode

HPLC Method for Analysis of EDTA and Maleic Acid on Newcrom B Column

EDTA Standards Solution A:
For the preparation of the EDTA standard solution, 5 mg of EDTA was accurately weighed and transferred into a 5 mL volumetric flask and dissolved in 0.001N NaOH water solution with sonication or magnetic stirrer mixing. Filtered The EDTA stock solution (1.0 mg/mL) should be stored in a cold dark place and can be used for a week to prepare standards of required concentration.

Iron(III) chloride Solution B:
The standard stock solution of Iron(III) chloride (10 mg/ml) was prepared in water. 50 mg of FeCl3 was accurately weighed and transferred into a 5 mL volumetric flask and dissolved in water, with sonication if needed.

General procedure for Ferric EDTA complex analysis:
To make a sample for analysis mix 100 µL Solution A (or unknown sample) with 100 µL Solution B and 800 µL of water.  Place this mixture in a plastic HPLC vial for analysis. Setup instrument and column according to the method provided.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Method for Analysis of EDTA and Maleic Acid

Condition

Column Newcrom B, 4.6×150 mm,  100A
Mobile Phase H2O – 99.98%
Buffer H2SO4 – 0.02%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV 260 nm

Description

Class of Compounds Acid, Hydrophilic
Analyzing Compounds EDTA, Maleic Acid

New more reliable method for EDTA analysis is available

Application Analytes:
EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid)
Ferric ion (Iron(3+) Ferric cation Fe3+ iron(III))
Maleic Acid
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Newcrom B

The Newcrom columns are a family of reverse phase-based columns. Newcrom A, AH, B, and BH are all mixed-mode columns with either positive or negative ion-pairing groups attached to either short (25 Å) or long (100 Å) ligand chains. Newcrom R1 columns are standard reverse phase columns with octyldecyl silane chains (C18) attached to porous silica. We have also designed a line of Newcrom R1 columns with a new outer design. This column and corresponding adapter entirely eliminate the need for any high-pressure fittings or tubing as well as minimizing all possible dead volumes. Furthermore, if a leak ever occurs in the high-pressure column inlet, the mobile phase is contained within the column adapter (no external leakage).

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HPLC Method for Analysis of Maleic acid, Ascorbic acid, Nicotinic acid, Fumaric acid and Oxalic acid on BIST™ A+ Column

2022-07-08

Separation type: Bridge Ion Separation Technology, or BIST™ by SIELC Technologies

HPLC Method for Analysis of Maleic  acid, Ascorbic acid, Nicotinic acid, Fumaric acid and Oxalic acid on BIST™ A+ Column by SIELC Technologies
HPLC Method for Analysis of Maleic acid, Ascorbic acid, Nicotinic acid, Fumaric acid and Oxalic acid on BIST™ A+ Column

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Method for Analysis of  Maleic  acid, Ascorbic acid, Nicotinic acid, Fumaric acid and Oxalic acid

The maleate ion from Maleic acid is a popular ingredient as the maleate salt in several different drugs, including Methergine, Pyrilamine, and Carfenazine, among others. Nicotinic acid, also known as Niacin or Vitamin B3, is an essential nutrient for the human body and is sometimes taken as a treatment for high cholesterol. Aconitic acid is a key intermediary in the citric acid cycle, and is also used a flavoring agent and in the production of rubbers and plastics. Fumaric acid is a popular preservative and food additive with a fruit-like taste. Using SIELC’s newly introduced BIST™ method, a mixture of these organic acids can be separated on a negatively-charged, cation-exchange BIST™ A+ column, contrary to conventional chromatographic wisdom. There are two keys to this retention method: 1) a multi-charged, positive buffer, such as N,N,N’,N’-Tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine (TMDAP), which acts as a bridge, linking the negatively-charged anion analytes to the negatively-charged column surface and 2) a mobile phase consisting mostly of organic solvent (such as MeCN) to minimize the formation of a solvation layer around the charged analytes. Other positively-charged buffers that can generate BIST™ include Calcium acetate and Magnesium acetate. Using this new and unique analysis method, these organic acids can be separated, retained, and detected through ELSD. This method is also compatible with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and CAD.

https://bist.lc/shop/columns/bist/bist-a-bist/bist-a-column-4-6x150mm-5um-100a-2/

Condition

ColumnBIST™ A+, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile PhaseMeCN Gradient
BufferTMDAP ( N,N,N’,N’-Tetramethyl-1,3-diaminopropane) phosphate  – 5 mM pH 4.0
Flow Rate1.0 ml/min
DetectionUV 250 nm

Description

Class of CompoundsAcids, Organic acid
Analyzing CompoundsMaleic  acid, Ascorbic acid, Nicotinic acid, Fumaric acid and Oxalic acid
Application Analytes:
Ascorbic Acid
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Nicotinic Acid/Niacin (3-pyridinecarboxylic acid)
Oxalic Acid
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

BIST A+

SIELC Technologies’ BIST™ Columns are a new and simple way to achieve many separations that are traditionally difficult or impossible to achieve with any other HPLC columns currently on the market! When used with our BIST™ mobile phases, these ion exchange columns can generate very strong retention of analytes that have the same charge polarity as the stationary phase, unlocking new chromatography applications that were previously too difficult to achieve.

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HPLC Method for Analysis of Maleic  Acid, Nicotinic Acid, Aconitic Acid and Fumaric Acid on BIST™ A+ Column

2022-07-07

Separation type: Bridge Ion Separation Technology, or BIST™ by SIELC Technologies

HPLC Method for Analysis of Maleic  Acid, Nicotinic Acid, Aconitic Acid and Fumaric Acid on BIST™ A+ Column by SIELC Technologies
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Method for Analysis of  Maleic  Acid, Nicotinic Acid, Aconitic Acid, Fumaric Acid

The maleate ion from Maleic acid is a popular ingredient as the maleate salt in several different drugs, including Methergine, Pyrilamine, and Carfenazine, among others. Nicotinic acid, also known as Niacin or Vitamin B3, is an essential nutrient for the human body and is sometimes taken as a treatment for high cholesterol. Aconitic acid is a key intermediary in the citric acid cycle, and is also used a flavoring agent and in the production of rubbers and plastics. Fumaric acid is a popular preservative and food additive with a fruit-like taste. Using SIELC’s newly introduced BIST™ method, a mixture of these organic acids can be separated on a negatively-charged, cation-exchange BIST™ A+ column, contrary to conventional chromatographic wisdom. There are two keys to this retention method: 1) a multi-charged, positive buffer, such as N,N,N’,N’-Tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine (TMDAP), which acts as a bridge, linking the negatively-charged anion analytes to the negatively-charged column surface and 2) a mobile phase consisting mostly of organic solvent (such as MeCN) to minimize the formation of a solvation layer around the charged analytes.

Condition

ColumnBIST™ A+, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN – 70%
BufferTMDAP ( N,N,N’,N’-Tetramethyl-1,3-diaminopropane) Phosphate  – 10 mM pH 4.0
Flow Rate1.0 ml/min
DetectionUV 200 nm

Description

Class of Compounds
Acid, Dicarboxylic acid, Tricarboxylic acid, Pyridinecarboxylic acid
Analyzing CompoundsMaleic  Acid, Nicotinic Acid, Aconitic Acid, Fumaric Acid
Application Analytes:
Aconitic acid
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Nicotinic Acid/Niacin (3-pyridinecarboxylic acid)
trans-Aconitic acid
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

BIST A+

SIELC Technologies’ BIST™ Columns are a new and simple way to achieve many separations that are traditionally difficult or impossible to achieve with any other HPLC columns currently on the market! When used with our BIST™ mobile phases, these ion exchange columns can generate very strong retention of analytes that have the same charge polarity as the stationary phase, unlocking new chromatography applications that were previously too difficult to achieve.

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HPLC Method For Analysis Of EDTA and Maleic Acid

2022-04-28

Separation type: Liquid Chromatography Mixed-mode

 


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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a very common chelating agent, used particularly for collecting Iron and Calcium ions. It has a wide range of applications, including in the textile industry, paper industry, pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetics, where it is used to capture unwanted metal ions in solution. Maleic acid, a dicarboxylic acid, has a few interesting applications, such in medicine to form salts with drugs to increase their stability and as a precursor for the production of glyoxylic acid, which is used in cosmetics. An Iron (III)-EDTA complex and Maleic acid can both be retained, separated, and analyzed on a mixed-mode Newcrom BH column with a mobile phase consisting of (mostly) water, Acetonitrile (MeCN), and Perchloric acid (HClO4). This analytical method can be UV detected at 220 nm with high resolution and peak symmetry.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Method for Analysis of EDTA and  Maleic Acid

Condition

Column Newcrom BH, 4.6×150 mm,  100A
Mobile Phase MeCN – 2%
Buffer HClO4 – 0.1%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV 220nm

Description

Class of Compounds Acid, Hydrophilic
Analyzing Compounds EDTA, Maleic Acid

 

Application Analytes:
EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid)
Ferric ion (Iron(3+) Ferric cation Fe3+ iron(III))
Maleic Acid
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Newcrom BH

The Newcrom columns are a family of reverse phase-based columns. Newcrom A, AH, B, and BH are all mixed-mode columns with either positive or negative ion-pairing groups attached to either short (25 Å) or long (100 Å) ligand chains. Newcrom R1 columns are standard reverse phase columns with octyldecyl silane chains (C18) attached to porous silica. We have also designed a line of Newcrom R1 columns with a new outer design. This column and corresponding adapter entirely eliminate the need for any high-pressure fittings or tubing as well as minimizing all possible dead volumes. Furthermore, if a leak ever occurs in the high-pressure column inlet, the mobile phase is contained within the column adapter (no external leakage).

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HPLC Separation of Methylmalonic, Fumaric, Maleic acids on Newcrom B Column

2019-10-28


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Condition

Column Newcrom B, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeOH/H2O – 5/93%
Buffer Formic Acid – 2%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection CAD (Corona)  (MS-compatible mobile phase)

Description

Class of Compounds Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Methylmalonic acid, Fumaric acid, Maleic acid

 

Application Analytes:
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Methylmalonic Acid
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Newcrom B

The Newcrom columns are a family of reverse phase-based columns. Newcrom A, AH, B, and BH are all mixed-mode columns with either positive or negative ion-pairing groups attached to either short (25 Å) or long (100 Å) ligand chains. Newcrom R1 columns are standard reverse phase columns with octyldecyl silane chains (C18) attached to porous silica. We have also designed a line of Newcrom R1 columns with a new outer design. This column and corresponding adapter entirely eliminate the need for any high-pressure fittings or tubing as well as minimizing all possible dead volumes. Furthermore, if a leak ever occurs in the high-pressure column inlet, the mobile phase is contained within the column adapter (no external leakage).

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HPLC Separation of Small Organic Acids on Newcrom B Column

2019-10-22


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Condition

Column Newcrom B, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O – 5/95%
Buffer AmAc pH 5.0, Formic Acid
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection CAD (Corona) MS- compatible mobile phase

Description

Class of Compounds Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Glycolic acid, Succinic Acid, Methylmalonic acid, Malic Acid, Maleic Acid, Citric Acid, Tartaric Acid, Fumaric Acid, Malonic Acid
Application Analytes:
Citric Acid
Fumaric Acid
Gluconic acid
Glycolic acid sodium salt
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Malonic Acid
Methylmalonic Acid
Succinic Acid
Tartaric Acid
dl-Tartaric acid
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Newcrom B

The Newcrom columns are a family of reverse phase-based columns. Newcrom A, AH, B, and BH are all mixed-mode columns with either positive or negative ion-pairing groups attached to either short (25 Å) or long (100 Å) ligand chains. Newcrom R1 columns are standard reverse phase columns with octyldecyl silane chains (C18) attached to porous silica. We have also designed a line of Newcrom R1 columns with a new outer design. This column and corresponding adapter entirely eliminate the need for any high-pressure fittings or tubing as well as minimizing all possible dead volumes. Furthermore, if a leak ever occurs in the high-pressure column inlet, the mobile phase is contained within the column adapter (no external leakage).

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Separation of Compounds in TCA Cycle on Primesep D Column

2013-07-03

The citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle, Krebs cycle) is a key process in the metabolic pathway by which all aerobic organisms generate energy. Compounds generated during TCA are hydrophilic, acidic compounds. Some of the hydrophilic acids are very strong while others are relatively weaker. All compounds have very low hydrophobicity and do not retain by the reversed-phase mechanism on the C18 or C8 HPLC columns. Citric acid and related products were separated in reversed-phase, anion-exchange mode on the Primesep D mixed-mode column. All hydrophilic, acidic compounds are well separated and demonstrate good shape. This robust method can be used for analysis of components of the TCA cycle and other highly hydrophilic compounds. This method is fully compatible with LC/MS and prep chromatography.

Condition

Column Primesep D, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm, pH 3.0
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection ELSD

 

Description

Class of Compounds
Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Sodium, Succinic acid, Malic acid, Isocitric acid, Citric acid, Fumaric acid, Maleic acid

 

Application Analytes:
Citric Acid
Fumaric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Sodium
Succinic Acid

Application Detection:
ELSD/MS Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep D

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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Analysis of Compounds of TCA Cycle on SHARC 1 Column

2013-07-02

This is an alternative approach for the separation of the TCA cycle intermediates that was developed using novel hydrogen-bonding HPLC column. The organic nature of the mobile phase helps obtain a highly sensitive LC/MS compatible method.

Application Analytes:
Citric Acid
Fumaric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Succinic Acid

Application Detection:
ELSD/MS Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

SHARC 1

The SHARC™ family of innovative columns are are the first commercially available columns with separation based primarily on hydrogen bonding. SHARC stands for Specific Hydrogen-bond Adsorption Resolution Column. Hydrogen bonding is an interaction (attraction) of bound hydrogen atom to the molecules with electronegative atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, and fluorine.

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HPLC Separation of Maleic Acid and Pentaerythritol

2012-07-10

 

Application Notes: Maleic acid is a small hydrophilic acid, which is poorly retained in reversed-phase chromatography. Pentaerythritol is hydrophilic neutral molecule. A miixed-mode HILIC/anion-exchange method was developed on Obelisc N HPLC column. The retention time for maleic acid can be controlled by amount of ACN, buffer pH, and buffer concentration. Pentaerythritol retention time is only controlled by the amount of acetonitrile. The method is LC/MS and ELSD compatible.
Application Columns: Obelisc N
Application compounds: Maleic Acid, Pentaerythritol
Detection technique: LC/MS, ELSD/CAD 

Condition

Column Obelisc N, 3.2×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O – 95/5%
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0- 5 mM
Flow Rate 0.5 ml/min
Detection ELSD

 

Description

Class of Compounds
Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Maleic Acid, Pentaerythritol

 

Application Analytes:
Maleic Acid
Pentaerythritol

Application Detection:
UV Detection
ELSD/MS Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Obelisc N

SIELC has developed the mixed-mode Obelisc™ columns to be the first commercially available columns with Liquid Separation Cell technology (LiSC™). This cost effective duo can replace multiple HPLC columns such as reversed-phase (RP), AQ-type reversed-phase, polar-embedded group RP columns, normal-phase, cation-exchange, anion- exchange, ion-exclusion, and HILIC (Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography) columns. By controlling just three orthogonal method parameters  - Buffer concentration, Buffer pH, and Organic Modifier Concentration  - users can adjust the column properties with pinpoint precision to separate complex mixtures.

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Separation of Maleic and Succinic Acid on Primesep B2 column

2011-07-08

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Organic and inorganic acids can be retained and separated on mixed-mode columns based on weak reversed-phase and weak/medium anion-exchange mechanisms. Amount of ACN, buffer concentration and buffer pH will affect retention time of organic and inorganic acids. Acids can be monitored by low UV, ELSD or LC/MS. Presence of ions is required to facilitate ion-exchange mechanism. Method can be used as a general approach for analysis of acidic hydrophilic and acidic hydrophobic compounds. Carboxylic acids along with inorganic acid can be retained and separated without ion-pairing reagent.

Condition

Column Primesep B2, 4.6×50 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O – 10/90%
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection ELSD, UV 230nm

Description

Class of Compounds Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Succinic Acid, Maleic Acid
Application Analytes:
Maleic Acid
Organic Acids
Succinic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
ELSD/MS Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep B2

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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HPLC Analysis of Polar Basic and Acetic Compounds on Primesep AB Column

2010-05-06


Mixture of polar acidic and basic compounds is separated on a Primesep AB mixed-mode HPLC column. Dopamine and tyrosine are retained by combination of reversed-phase and cation-exchange mechanisms. Maleic acid is retained by anion-exchange mechanism, and benzoic acid is retained by reversed-phase mechanism. Primesep AB is a trimodal column with a C12 hydrophobic chain and cation-exchange and anion exchange groups on the surface. Method utilizes UV detection but can be used with other detection techniques (ELSD, LC/MS, Corona).

Condition

Column Primesep AB, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA – 0.1%
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 210 nm

 

Description

Class of Compounds
Drug, Acid, Monocarboxylic acid,  Hydrophilic, Ionizable, Hormone
Analyzing Compounds Tyrosine, Dopamine, Maleic Acid, Benzoic Acid

 

Application Analytes:
Benzoic Acid
Dopamine
Maleic Acid
Tyrosine

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep AB

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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HPLC Analysis of Basic Drugs and Acidic Counter-Ions by Mixed-Mode Chromatography

2009-07-16

The majority of drugs in the pharmaceutical industry are administered in salt form. The presence of two counter-ions very often necessitates the use of two methods. The nature of these counterparts in drugs can be an inorganic cation and organic acid, inorganic anion and organic base, and organic cation and organic anion. Furthermore, the properties of the molecules will result in a differing stoichiometry. The task of simultaneous quantitation of counter-ions can be achieved by using mixed-mode columns. The general approach for analysis is based on properties of corresponding counter-ions. Hydrophobic basic drugs, like dextromethorphan, verapamil, trimipramine, and corresponding acidic counter-ions (chloride, chlorate, bromide, bromate, perchlorate, maleate, fumarate,tartrate, succinate, phosphate, citrate, benzosulfonate, toleuensulfonate) can be separated and quantitated in the same run on reversed-phase anion-exchange column. Basic hydrophobic drugs are retained by the reversed-phase mechanism, and counter-ions are retained by the reversed-phase and anion-exchange mechanism. Some polar counter-ions are retained only by the anion-exchange mechanism. Retention time and selectivity of HPLC separation of drugs and counter-ions can be achieved by changing the amount of acetonitrile and the amount of ions in the mobile phase. The detection technique depends on the properties of the counter-ions. In case of low or no UV activity, ELSD can be employed if the counter-ion forms a non-volatile salt with the mobile phase additive (ammonium formate). This HPLC method can be used for simultaneous quantitation of other basic drugs and counter-ions. The presence of two mechanisms of retention allows control over retention times of drug and counter-ion independently, and even allows a change of order of elution when necessary.

Condition

Column Primesep D , 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm pH 3.0
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection ELSD, UV 270

Description

Class of Compounds Ions, Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Base, Acids, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Sodium Chloride, Sodium chloride, Sodium Chlorate, Sodium bromide, Sodium bromate, Perchloric Acid, Maleic Acid, Fumaric Acid, Tartaric Acid, Succinic Acid, Phosphoric Acid, Citric acid, Benzosulfonic acid,  Dextromethorphan, Verapamil, Trimipramine
Application Analytes:
Benzenesulfonic Acid
Bromide
Chlorate
Chloride
Citric Acid
Dextromethorphan
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Organic Acids
Perchlorate
Phosphoric Acid
Pyrilamine
Succinic Acid
Tartaric Acid
Verapamil
p-Toluenesulfonic Acid (PTSA)

Application Detection:
UV Detection
ELSD/MS Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep D

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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HPLC Separation of Organics Acids

2006-11-21

Primesep D separates organic acids such as fumaric, benzoic, phthalic, naphthoic, and maleic acids by a mixture of anion exchange and reversed phase. Retention times and elution order can be changed by adjusting the percentage of acetonitrile in the mobile. This can not be done by traditional ion-exchange and ion-exclusion chromatography. The HPLC separation uses a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and UV detection at 250 nm.

Condition

Column Primesep D, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer AmFm
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV 250 nm

 

Description

Class of Compounds
Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Fumaric Acid, Benzoic Acid, Phthalic Acid, Maleic Acid, Naphtoic Acid

 

Application Analytes:
Benzoic Acid
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Naphthoic Acid
Organic Acids
Phthalic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep D

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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Neutral, Base, and Acid on Primesep B Column

2005-11-15

Primesep B separates acids, bases, and neutrals in one injection. Maleic acid, benzonitrile, and benzylamine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Application Analytes:
Benzonitrile
Benzylamine
Maleic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep B

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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Neutral, Base, and Acid on Primesep A Column

2005-11-14

Primesep A separates acids, bases, and neutrals in one injection. Maleic acid, benzonitrile, and benzylamine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Application Analytes:
Benzonitrile
Benzylamine
Maleic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Neutral, Base, and Acid on Primesep 100 Column

2005-11-14

Primesep 100 retains and separates an acid, base, and neutral in one HPLC injection. Maleic acid, benzylamine, and benzonitrile are resolved by ion-exclusion, ion-exhange and reversed-phase modes. The separation uses a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Application Analytes:
Benzonitrile
Benzylamine
Maleic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep 100

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

Select options

Neutral, Base, and Acid on Primesep 200 Column

2005-11-14

Primesep 200 separates acids, bases, and neutrals in one injection. Maleic acid, benzonitrile, and benzylamine are baseline resolved by a combination of reversed-phase, ion-exchange, and ion-exclusion mechanisms. Excellent peak shape results with a mass spec compatible mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Application Analytes:
Benzonitrile
Benzylamine
Maleic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep 200

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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Separation of Diacid Hydrophobic and Ion Exchange Modes

2005-10-11

Primesep B combines a hydrophobic, reversed-phase mechanism with ion exchange to separate the diacids, fumaric, benzoic, phthalic, naphthoic, and maleic acids. Changing the acetonitrile content of the mobile phase reverses the peak order for naphthoic and maleic acids. Primesep B combines reversed-phase and anion-exchange mechanism with a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) and UV detection at 250 nm.

Condition

Column Primesep B, 4.6×150 mm, 5 µm, 100A
Mobile Phase MeCN/H2O
Buffer TFA
Flow Rate 1.0 ml/min
Detection UV, 250 nm

 

Description

Class of Compounds
Acid, Hydrophilic, Ionizable
Analyzing Compounds Fumaric acid, Benzoic acid, Phthalic acid, Naphthoic acid, Maleic acid, )

 

Application Analytes:
Benzoic Acid
Dicarboxylic Acids
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Naphthoic Acid
Phthalic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep B

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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Separation of Diacid Hydrophobic and Ion Exclusion Modes

2005-10-04

Primesep 200 retains and separates the organic diacids (malic, succinic, fumaric, and maleic) by a combination hydrophobic, reversed-phase interactions and ion exclusion. The separation uses a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN) and trifluoracetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 210 nm.

Application Analytes:
Dicarboxylic Acids
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Succinic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep 200

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

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Separation of Diacid: Ion Exclusion mode

2003-08-06

Primesep 100 separates a mixture of dicarboxylic acids in ion-exclusion mode with a mobile phase of water, acetonitrile (MeCN, ACN), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with UV detection at 210 nm. Baseline resolution of fumaric, maleic, malic, and succinic acids is obtained in less than 8 minutes. The separation combines ion-exclusion and reversed-phase mechanisms in one method.

Application Analytes:
Dicarboxylic Acids
Fumaric Acid
Maleic Acid
Malic Acid
Succinic Acid

Application Detection:
UV Detection
SIELC Technologies usually develops more than one method for each compound. Therefore, this particular method may not be the best available method from our portfolio for your specific application. Before you decide to implement this method in your research, please send us an email to research@sielc.com so we can ensure you get optimal results for your compound/s of interest.

Primesep 100

The Primesep family of mixed-mode columns offer a wide variety of stationary phases with an unprecedented selectivity in the separation of a broad array of chemical compounds and in multiple applications. Corresponding Primesep guard columns are available with all stationary phases and do not require holders. SIELC offers a method development service which is available for all customers. Ask about our special custom LC-phases tailored for specific separations.

Select options